INTRODUCTION You would think that energy efficiency is relatively simple: perform an energy audit, install the retrofits and then reap the energy savings. Unfortunately, it doesn”t always work that way. We performed an energy assessment of several stores of a major retail chain in the San Francisco Bay Area and identified a handful of low-cost retro-commissioning measures that had very promising potential. We quantified the expected savings and costs and returned after the project was installed. We then measured the savings using various methods and found either minimal or negative savings. The problem we discovered was that on nearly every measure, the contractors had repaired the hardware, but through various means had ensured that energy savings would not occur. This paper provides an account of the failed project at one store and the steps we took to remedy it. Specifically, this paper stresses the importance of Measurement and Verification and Commissioning of the retrofits. DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING The store, located in San Francisco, belongs to a well-known national retailer, whose name we will not divulge. The store is an aggregate of 3 buildings which have been joined together to comprise almost 1,000,000 square feet, of which over half is selling floor. Stock rooms and offices comprise the remainder of the space. The different buildings range between 8 and 11 stories tall. The three buildings comprising the store were built at different times from the 1920s to the 1980s. Originally the buildings had different air handling, chilled water and hot water systems. Over the years, through energy conservation and facility improvement measures, the chilled water systems have been merged into one system. There were no operating boilers in the store. Steam is provided to the store by an external vendor. Hot water is supplied to multi-zone air handling units and perimeter reheats in some areas of the store via heat exchangers. There is one common cooling plant which houses two 500 ton centrifugal chillers (2004) which run all year. Chilled water is supplied to the Air Handling Units (AHUs) via primary/secondary chilled water loops. During the hottest months, both chillers run at around 90% full load””this happens about 5 days/yr. During the cooler months, one chiller runs at about 40% full load. If you have been to San Francisco you probably know that even in summer a typical day only reaches about 60 degrees . A properly designed and operating building in San Francisco should not need mechanical cooling most of the year, instead relying upon outside air to meet its cooling needs. This was obviously not the case . A utility bill analysis identified an out of control building. Figure 1 presents twelve months of average usage per day versus average outdoor temperature. Each point represents a billing period. The superimposed red line represents the statistically insignificant trend. The lack of clear trend indicates that the building is either haphazardly controlled or that energy use varies due to some other variable. We believe mostly the former. During warmer periods (which are not that warm) the store uses more energy, indicating a variable cooling load based upon weather conditions. (An ideal system that uses outside air whenever possible should show a horizontal trend in this 48 to 66 degree temperature range.) There are over fifty AHUs: a mixture of single zone, multi-zone, and variable air volume units. Each of the three sections contains different types of AHUs. Electricity Costs for the store were over $2.5M per year. With the economic collapse in the fall of 2008, smart retailers were looking to cut costs wherever possible. One line item that could be cut was utilities. Saving 10% or more could add at least $250,000 to the bottom line. BACKGROUND OF THE UTILITY PROGRAM There may be several reasons why California uses less than 50% per capita of the energy than the rest of the country, but one major reason is the aggressive effort of the California Public Utilities Commission to cut energy usage. Commercial ratepayers of the investor owned utilities pay a fee in their utility bills that funds energy efficiency programs. These funds are then channeled to the investor owned utilities to promote energy efficiency. These utilities have over one hundred targeted programs aimed at different vertical markets such as: wineries, retail, hospitals, supermarkets, etc. Often these programs will include free energy audits or retro-commissioning services in conjunction with generous incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In some cases, the utilities will pay for up to 100% of the cost for implementing the measures. The utilities administer some programs directly and outsource others. The outsourced programs are designed and administered by third party energy consultants. Quantum Energy Services & Technologies, Inc. Nike Blazer High homme (QuEST), an energy consulting firm headquartered in Berkeley, administers a retail program for PG&E which covers the San Francisco Bay Area. This program offers retailers free retro-commissioning studies along with incentives to implement energy conservation measures found. The utilities give incentives to the building owners based upon the amount of energy saved. But in order for energy savings to be recognized by PG&E, these savings need to be measured and verified and then the savings calculations must pass a review by third party reviewers. Nobody gets paid if the work does not pass the third party review. The third party review process is necessary to prevent false claims of savings, or gaming of the system. The reviewers can be tough and require all assumptions to be documented and based upon published standards or guidelines. The drawback of third party review is that some measures are dropped as the Measurement and Verification (M&V) costs would be prohibitively expensive. QuEST retained our company as a subcontractor to help out with the retail program. Our company performed Retro-Commissioning (RCx) services on 8 stores belonging to this unnamed retailer, and this paper is about one of the stores. However, the same story occurred at most of the stores. It wasn”t one failure, but many. A NOTE ON THE LEVEL OF RCx RIGOR RCx is different from energy auditing in that RCx typically involves a more detailed study of the building”s control systems and HVAC systems than energy audits. In addition, RCx typically focuses on repairing, recalibrating and reprogramming, rather than procuring new equipment. Simple paybacks for RCx projects typically are under 2 years. Examples of RCx measures are: repairing inoperable equipment, programming controls, demand control ventilation, and calibrating temperature sensors. Examples of energy audit measures (which are not considered RCx measures) are: installing energy efficient chillers, boilers or package units, converting single zone HVAC systems to variable air volume systems, and installing EMS systems. Energy audit measures often are more expensive and may have longer paybacks. On the other hand, true RCx studies are much more detailed, and thus much more expensive to conduct than energy audits. RCx studies usually involve data logging, functional testing of controls, operator training and post implementation commissioning which repeats much of the data logging and functional testing that was previously done. RCx is criticized by some as too heavy on the analysis, as it can require hundreds of hours of work just to perform the study, whereas energy audits consume much less labor. In order to make the most efficient use of ratepayer dollars, in QuEST”s RCx program the amount of engineering time was scaled down to minimize the time spent on work that does not directly lead to energy savings. nike kwazi enfants Rather than write commissioning plans, and 100-page Master List of Findings reports, the interim deliverable is instead an Excel workbook that describes the measure, states all assumptions and measured values, and calculates the savings. Equipment is data-logged or trended before and after the implementation of the measures. Calculations are made in Excel so they can be verified by third party reviewers. Written reports come later, but are less extensive than typical RCx reports. ONSITE INVESTIGATION Two engineers spent 3 days onsite examining the store”s mechanical systems, uncovering problems, and identifying RCx Measures. Our work to this point was nearly identical to an energy audit. Once the RCx Measures were identified, the list of RCx Measures was given to the customer who then decided which of them should be pursued. The list also was approved by the third party reviewer. christian louboutin paris MEASURES FOUND We found the store could save about $300,000 in both RCx and Retrofit Measures, which, with incentives offered a simple payback of less than six months. That is 12% of their energy spend. The following measure types were identified and approved by all parties: Retrofit Measures 1.Install Variable Speed Drives (VSDs) on Multi-Zone Air Handling Units (AHUs). 2.Installation of VSDs on secondary chilled water loops. adidas bounce homme RCx Measures 1.Repair economizer control on some air handlers. Many outside air dampers were rusted in place. A two by six was used to prop one open. 2.Repair a small number of faulty VSDs, some of which were in bypass running at 100% fan speed. 3.Reconnect static pressure lines. Some VSDs were running at full speed because the lines running to the static pressure sensors in the ducting had been previously destroyed by contractors. 4.Repair/Replace stuck chilled water valves. These valves were cooling whether the AHUs called for cooling or not. As a result, sales floor temperatures ranged from 62 degrees to 70 degrees. 5.Connect some AHUs to the Energy Management System. Asics Gel Kinsei 6 Homme These AHUs were running wild and had no control at all. DATA LOGGING Once the measures were selected by the customer, QuEST engineers placed data loggers to measure pre-implementation temperatures and power. Temperatures measured included Outside Air Temperature (OAT), Return Air Temperature (RAT), Mixed Air Temperature (MAT) and Supply Air Temperature (SAT). Fan Motor kW were also logged for those units on VSDs. Spot measurements were taken of Fan Motor kW for AHUs that were not on VSDs. Asics Gel Lyte 3 Femme Beige SAVINGS CALCULATION Energy savings were estimated using bin data simulations. Like-type AHUs were combined. Special care was taken in calculating energy savings to ensure that savings were not double-counted. Each energy conservation measure was modeled assuming the prior measures were already implemented. We integrated the interval data that we collected into the bin data simulations. To do this, we created regressions of our variables (RAT, MAT, SAT, kW) versus OAT. These regressions were used to project RATs, MATs, SATs and kW for other outdoor air temperatures that were not included in our sample. INSTALLATION Once we had estimated savings using our bin simulation models and provided measure costs, the customer decided which measures to implement. They then hired contractors to implement the measures. VSDs were installed and repaired, economizer dampers repaired, AHUs connected to the EMS system, etc. M&V PROVES NO SAVINGS Once the implementation was completed, QuEST engineers returned to the site and again data logged the same temperatures and power as before. The resulting data, RATs, MATs, SATs and kWs, was again regressed against OAT. Using the regression, RATs, MATs, SATs, and kW values were again extrapolated and placed into the bin simulations. The resulting calculations demonstrated the unthinkable. Not only were the energy conservation measures we had recommended not saving energy, the affected systems at the store were using more energy than before! Actually, this could be seen from just looking at the interval data. It was obvious that the economizers and variable speed drives were not working as intended. The “repaired” economizers were letting in less outside air than before, and the variable speed drives were still commanding the fans to run at a constant load, but at a higher speed than before. QuEST alerted the customer that their investments were not saving energy. Facility personnel then investigated the problems, found them, and corrected them. Even though the contractors had made the economizers operational (as opposed to frozen), the damper actuators were not calibrated correctly. When dampers needed to be fully open, they were not. When dampers needed to be at minimum position, they were not. The variable speed drives were also installed incorrectly. Some wiring and controls issues were resolved and the units started operating as expected. Once these issues were resolved, M&V was performed again. We repeated the data-logging and placed this information into our bin simulations, and again projected the annual savings. There are many ways energy efficiency projects can go wrong. “Faulty recommendations “Poor implementation “Untrained staff who compromise all the energy conservation measures undertaken Faulty recommendations may arise from a lack of understanding of how systems operate or should operate. Years of experience, and a good understanding of physics and control theory is necessary to make sound recommendations. Poor implementation has many causes, but often can be traced to the mindset that having the right equipment will make the difference. But as the lessons learned here illustrate, installing the right hardware is only half the solution. It needs to be integrated into the system and operate according to a logical and beneficial sequence of operations. The last item is especially troublesome because it is so common. Even if the right hardware is installed and controls optimized, small changes to the sequence of operations made to “fix” local problems may have large consequences on overall system performance over time. Changing supply air temperatures at the air handler to resolve hot or cold complaints may upset the balance of the system and cause problems elsewhere. Professors at Texas A&M University have pointed out that in the absence of continuous monitoring, a building”s performance will fall to the level of the least-trained operator within two years. Nike Air Max 90 Femme HOW TO AVOID FAILED ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROJECTS There are a couple of ways to avoid projects that fail to produce savings. After equipment is installed, it needs to be commissioned by a third party, not the contractor who implemented the ECMs. Commissioning can be expensive, but it is worth it. However, just because the equipment has been deemed operational by the commissioning agent, that doesn”t mean it is saving what was expected. Commissioning will tell you if the equipment is working as it should. To determine if you are actually saving what was expected, M&V needs to be done on the building. Although M&V can appear as a waste of money to some, it caught this disaster before it was too late. Unfortunately, building owners often value engineer commissioning and M&V out of their projects and leave themselves open to big disappointments in their energy efficiency projects. M&V is like insurance””sure, it costs money up front, but the reassurance of knowing the project is done correctly should be worth far more than the initial outlay. What other product would you purchase without verifying that you actually received what you paid for? Why should energy efficiency be any different? CONCLUSION Unfortunately, energy efficiency isn”t as simple as we would wish. Energy consultants may deliver quality energy audits and RCx studies, but merely implementing sound energy efficiency recommendations does not guarantee energy savings. The weak link is often in the commissioning of the measures to ensure they are doing what they are intended to do. To avoid underperforming on your energy efficiency measures, we suggest the following three strategies: 1. Commission what you implement with third-party commissioning experts. Commissioning agents are not interested in selling hardware. They are interested in making systems operate at peak performance. They understand physics and control theory and can identify and repair problems quickly. 2. Track your energy savings using M&V. Even using something as simple as utility bill tracking software can provide some insight into building performance. An increase in monthly energy usage when a decrease was expected would have triggered an investigation into the cause. Verifying performance at the system level (as we did), while more difficult and expensive, would have isolated the problem much more quickly and accurately. 3. Parajumpers Denali Femme Provide proper training so that your facility staff doesn”t override or bypass your energy efficiency projects. Although we barely treated this topic in this paper, this is probably the single most effective step you can take. Your staff is the brains behind building operation, despite what EMS vendors may say. Having the smartest control system will do no good if it is operated by the dumbest operators.
One of the simplest ways of changing the look of your home is flooring. We all love our homes. That is why you spend so much time, thinking about each and every aspect of indoor decoration. Your house indoors looks beautiful only when the walls, the furniture, the lighting and Flooring Sydney come together in a pleasing fashion. When it comes to flooring, you do have several options. The different types are – ceramic, resilient, stone, laminate and hardwood flooring.
Each and every type of Flooring Sydney has its own appeal. We are big fans of Laminate Flooring. If you are looking at different Flooring Sydney options, perhaps you would like to know more about Laminate Flooring Sydney. Some of its features are amazing and extremely practical. Each of these features has great many benefits that will impress you right away. The first feature about Laminate Flooring is that it is among cheapest options among all the Laminate Flooring choices you have in front of you. Why should you consider spending less money on Laminate Flooring? As it turns out, there are some solid reasons for that.
Think of any occasion when you were your visiting cousins or friends. Do you remember the Flooring Sydney style of the home? Unless you are specifically looking for it, you won’t remember the Laminate Flooring Sydney style they had in their home. On top of that, it is possible that you will be making extensive use of carpets all over your house. When you add in the fact that much of your home is going to be occupied by furniture, you hardly notice the Flooring Sydney. You could have the most elaborate designs on your floor, hardly anyone would notice. If nobody is going to notice your home Flooring Sydney, there is no point is spending so much money on Laminate Flooring alone.
We have told you that Laminate Flooring Sydney is inexpensive. This does not mean that it ‘looks’ cheap. A majority of your home visitors may never notice the Laminate Flooring Sydney in your home. Some people do. This is why Laminate Flooring Sydney does have some style to present. It may not blow your mind, but it won’t make you hide behind the curtains in shame either. It is what we would like to call ‘just sufficient’.
Another important factor is that, you can always replace the carpets in your home. You cannot do that with Laminate Flooring. Once you have spent money on Laminate Flooring Sydney, it stays that way. The last feature of Laminate Flooring is its ability to be cleaned. By far, laminate Flooring is the easiest to clean. If you have lots of kids in your home, take our word for it. Laminate Flooring Sydney is going to be like a pleasant summer gift for you.
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Normally people use cabinets in kitchens and bathrooms. They use it in other places also like bedrooms to keep the things that they normally do not require. But these cabinets are not used numerous times a day. So we will just talk about bathrooms and kitchen cabinets. Cabinet knobs are attached to the cabinet’s doors which we usually open and close. And if you notice about the bathroom and kitchen cabinets you open and close it at least ten times a day. Due to this, the knobs of the cabinet will start to look dirty and discolored.
Now think about it. You are preparing some food in the kitchen and there are many things that stick to your hands. You want something from the cabinet so you open the cabinet using cabinet knob. The residue in the hand sticks to the knob of the cabinet making to look dirty. Same is the case with bathroom cabinets. You open the cabinets with soap in hand or shave in hand. The natural oil from the skin also sets as a residue on cabinet knob.
You cannot prevent this. You have to wash your hands before opening the cabinet or wear gloves. But practically if you look at it this thing is not possible. So the only alternative left is changing the cabinet knobs. But it is important that you choose the knobs that spice up your room and matches the decor of the room.
You will find a large number of options in market which can totally change the looks of your room. You can choose from numerous options which will match the decor of the room. You will find knobs for country and antique looking cabinet, to modern or novelty cabinet.
The best place to search for the cabinet knobs is the internet. Internet is your best friend and you can get anything from it. Just search the sites that work in this field and you will find that you can choose from many options. Even some options are not available in the local stores. Also the price is better than the local price and you will also get good discounts. Just one click of the mouse button and the product will be available at your door steps in just seven days. But it is recommended that you choose the best and trusted site. For this you have to do a little research.
Here are some tips for buying knobs for cabinets. The most important is that choose the cabinet knobs that are of the same size of the previous one. This is because if you choose a knob like this then you will get exact replacement and easy to fit.
The second thing you can do is buy the knob that you like the most and fit it in the cabinet. After this, change the finish of the cabinet according to the knobs. This will not only give a change to the knobs but will also give it a total new look. This will also makes the room look fresh.
Cabinet knobs are available in many different looks like in different shapes, sizes and colors. More and more innovations are being made in the knobs of the cabinets.
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The one of the biggest differences between remodeling a kitchen in a home that you plan on staying in for the long term versus remodeling to help sell your home is that a project done for the long term will be designed around the homeowners preferences while a home sale-based project will be designed for the preferences of as yet unknown buyers. In terms of planning, the different objectives will take a project on completely different paths:
The Emotional Quest
In addition to being the place where meals are prepared, the kitchen is now the hub of family and social interaction which combines two activities that bring people together. In this sense, planning a kitchen remodeling project can be an emotional quest based on the activities that are anticipated to take place there. In fact, neurological studies have found a direct link between specific brain cells and the safety, memories, and experiences that take place in home, of which the kitchen has become both the physical and spiritual hub. With an emotional layer added to the remodeling project, the planning phase goes beyond the purchase of the physical products and instead goes to the memories and experiences that will occur there. As a caveat, regardless of the level of emotion behind the project, pragmatic decisions must be made in terms of the budget, the appliances, and the rest of the kitchen design elements for a successful outcome.
The Financial Quest
A remodeling project that is being planned for the purpose of selling the home should take out all of the emotion that would go into a remodeling project based on staying in the home for the long term. In this situation, there are two primary goals; designing a kitchen that will help to sell the home while spending the lowest amount possible to achieve the first objective. In this type of quest, the remodeling process should start with research on relative home values as well as an assessment of how much remodeling is necessary to realize the highest sale price possible. A third variable in this calculation is that the end result of the remodeling project should appeal to the broadest market possible. Generally speaking, a remodeling project that meets these criteria will likely include energy efficient appliances that fit into an overall scheme of a neutral style that ties in with the rest of the home. Keep in mind that while this type of project may not be as exciting to plan as one for the long term, the sale of the current home may put you in a position where you can design a kitchen that you and your family can use for years to come.
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A lot of English Victorian country pine furniture has disappeared from great Britain, probably most exported to the united states.
The Victorian period 1837 to 1901 you associate with ornate carved furniture, but there would have been plenty of plain country
Victorian furniture. Which has been slightly difficult to find as many shops have closed or gone on to the Internet.
The market for antique pine furniture in the UK is still here so traders have had to look elsewhere for pieces namely Europe Germany France Czech republic. So the European pieces are made during the same period in another country. The dutch seemed to get the grip of this due to the fact they have been prolific traders throughout history and began sourcing large quantities through out Europe and bringing it over to the UK. This market still carries on but not in the same volume as years ago as wages and transport eat away any profits. Not all the old pine furniture you see is of our Victorian period there is some of the nineteen twenties period so check for ply wood being used in the backs and internal panels, if it is of a later period but there’s nothing wrong in that. There are still older pieces from the Germany and France sometimes of a better quality than English pine as its construction tends to be of thicker panels. There are still plenty of pieces throughout Europe from large glazed dressers, wardrobes in all shapes and sizes some static and some that breakdown. Small pot cupboards which some still have the original marble tops, which are replaced for the English market. Ninety nine percent are painted or still in the dark stain and varnish, made to look like a more expensive piece in mahogany or similar when bought new.
Old pine furniture or Victorian country furniture created by craftspeople whose skills were passed from generation to generation. Its appeal lies in the fact that each piece is hand-made and therefore unique. Having a handmade piece of furniture is something special. Most of the old furniture was intended to be painted. The paint protected the timber in damper homes and was easier to keep clean than unpainted wood. It would be better if we could keep the paint on, but some pieces need restoring which makes this impossible. The the paint is an intrinsic part of the history of the furniture but practically if you have a piece that’s one hundred years old and never been restored the finish of ether paint or varnish is usually beyond repair. People think that old pine furniture wasn’t authentic unless it had been stripped but it really was meant to be painted. The hot caustic stripping is a bit drastic but if done by a expert its OK, also i should kill of any worm. People are often afraid of antique pine because of a fear of woodworm. Old Victorian furniture can have woodworm, but its treatable. If you have holes in the wood, it means the worm has already gone, but if you see traces of fresh powder the wood may have live worm in it. Safest way to treat the piece with a chemical spray.
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