Monthly Archives: November 2017

A Quick Guide to Wall Water Fountain Styles

Wall water fountains are among the most popular fountain styles because of their space efficiency and visual impact. A basic wall water fountain is much like a print or painting, adding dimension to a flat surface. Wall water fountains include so much variety, however, that they can do much more, acting as a focal point in a way a framed photograph or other piece of static wall art cant match. Dont underestimate the role of motion, sound and light; wall fountains provide all of these through the soothing medium of flowing water.

Lets tour the basic styles of wall water fountains to get a better idea about which of them would suit your home or office dcor the best. Wall fountains are usually divided by the materials theyre made out of, but there are lots of different kinds, so this list is by no means complete in fact, many wall fountains combine multiple materials. Browse serenityhealth.com to see a complete selection beyond what this article describes.

Stone: Slate and Marble

Slate and marble are the most common types of stone used in wall water fountains. Marble provides a classic look that works well with white, off-white and other clean, reflective color schemes. Water enhances polished marbles reflective qualities, adding extra brightness to a room. Slate will also work with lighter colors by providing a gentle contrast. In addition, slate has the advantage of allowing both rough-hewn and smooth styles. This makes it compatible with a wider variety of interior styles. It often works well with a darker color scheme, especially since it can be cut and colored beyond a basic smooth gray to present a natural-looking surface.

Stone fountains are often bracketed with metal, though some styles include rough or smooth stone basins instead. Aside from marble and slate, fountains in other stones and similar styles (including cemented pebble surfaces and concrete) are available.

Metal: Copper and Steel

Copper and stainless steel are the two most common metals for wall water fountains, either as borders and basin linings or as the face of the fountain itself. Stainless steel is ideal for sleek, modern interior designs, including “retro-modern” 60s-and 70s-style interiors. Copper supports more traditional styles, as its warm color goes well with wood and earth tones. You can actually get a number of different types of copper in a wall water fountain. Copper fountains are treated to prevent metal oxidization (the process that turns it green) but it can be artificially aged and etched.

Sculpted Ceramic for Home and Garden

For a truly Old World feel you can go with sculpted ceramic. These fountains often feature traditional Asian and European designs: Buddhas, lions, green men and angels, for example. These are popular garden fountains but can often be mounted indoors, where they complement rough brick and other textured walls.

Glass and Mirror-Style Wall Water Fountains

Glass, including mirrored surfaces, is an excellent choice to brighten up a room. Furthermore, mirrored fountains can actually serve as mirrors; the constant flow of water keeps them clean and polished, while the flow of water is usually not so great as to seriously distort what you see. Transparent and smoked glass is often used in business environments along with a stencil of the companys name or logo. A more recent development is hand painted glass. The paint stays waterproof and turns the fountain into a true moving painting.

Oak Flooring From Oxford Specialists To Add Class To Your Commercial Premises.

Each business has an image that it looks to project and this should be carefully considered when decorating its premises. Many businesses such as shops, restaurants and hotels opt for carpet tiles or vinyl, but if you are looking to create a high-class finish that reflects your companies image consider natural oak wood flooring. mu legend zen online There are suppliers that offer oak flooring Oxford which could add value to your property, alongside other flooring types such as carpets. It is also a material that is beneficial for businesses as it is easily maintained and can be cleaned with little fuss at the end of the night. mu legend zen for sale The wooden flooring that they offer is produced by two top manufacturers, Junckers and Boen; Junckers create durable wooden flooring that will stand the test of time, it is available in a variety of colours and styles making it suitable for a wide range of premises. Nike Air Max Men For sports halls and leisure centres they supply safe flooring suitable for many different activities. Adidas Zx 750 Homme Boen flooring tackles a selection of problems that can occur in commercial properties such as humid or dry climates and issues surrounding sound. nike scarpe 2017 They too supply commercial and sports flooring that can be laid easily on top of existing wooden flooring or concrete. Contrary to some of the other options available, wooden flooring is highly durable making it suitable for commercial businesses and offices with a high traffic flow. However, should your existing wooden flooring need restoring to its original state, these specialists offer a variety of repair services to help. If you are adding the finishing touches to your businesses premises and need a floor covering to reflect its quality image to your clients, contact an oak flooring specialist in the Oxford area.

Mulch Dye Keeps Landscaping Looking Fresh And New

Landscaping and its maintenance to keep it looking neat and manicured can require a lot of expense and time. A home’s “curb appeal” is important, not only for homeowner pride but for home value. For a business, the exterior appearance is as important as the interior to draw customers inside and to communicate that image of professionalism and attention to detail. With so much riding on it, it’s well worth keeping it looking fresh and appealing.

Though it doesn’t get the attention of beautiful flowers and sculpted shrubbery, mulch is an important part of the look of a landscape. It is the base from which the rest emerges, contrasting and highlighting the array of colors of the plants and flowers in the beds. Regardless of the beauty of the vegetation, mulch that is old and faded will give the entire landscape a tired, worn out feeling.

Unfortunately, replacing the old mulch with fresh mulch every year after it has faded to an unappealing gray color is costly and time-consuming. Over mulching can also be detrimental to trees and plants in time. There is a secret of the landscape industry that is now available to all, however, and that is mulch colorant, or mulch dye. Mulch dye can be quickly and inexpensively applied to old mulch to give it a fresh, like-new appearance that will enhance the look of every part of the landscape and garden. Depending on the color palette of the structure and flowering plants, mulch dye is available in different color tones to complement existing plants and make them visually stand out.

Mulch dye is very easy to use and environmentally safe for use in the garden and non-toxic for people and pets. All it takes is water and a sprayer that is readily available at lawn and garden supply or hardware stores. Mix the dye with water according to the directions and apply it to the old, faded mulch to give it new, vibrant color. Mulch dye can be used on any type of mulch, including wood chips, bark, and pine.

Cleanup is easy with a simple rinse of the equipment all that is required. Any dye that over sprays onto a sidewalk or siding can be easily rinsed away with water. Mulch dye is a quick and easy solution to an old, expensive problem. With mulch dye, your landscaping can always look fresh and attended without the expense and labor of replacing old mulch with new every year.

Dinette sets to decorate your kitchen

Kitchen designs are vital in the formation of an atmosphere known as home. Kitchen tables are the places where memories are born, stories told, dreams are incarnated. In a -dinette set- chairs are placed around chairs such that life evolves around memories. A -dinette set- brings families together for meals, bringing persons and their memories together. It has been observed that now days the furniture customers comes with a specific need. Nike Roshe Run Femme Porté The need is for knowledgeable, courteous, friendly design who could meet the requirement of the customer. This furniture should create a warm and inviting environment, where families could come and browse a showroom. nike little rift br bambini -Dinette Sets- can create the environment, the customers used to look for. new balance femme To fulfill this desire of customers, Dinette Specialty Store comes into picture. basket new balance This furniture is perfect fit for any family. 6 inch timberland boots Jordan 11 enfants Not only the look and fit, -Dinette Sets- are also affordable to the customers. Nike Roshe Run Two femme One can get a beautiful set at a very cheap price. There are many big retailers that sell -Dinette Sets-. They provide a wide variety of style and function. This furniture is sold in the showrooms and sometimes one can even buy them online. There are -Dinette Sets- made up of well finished rich wood, alongside lighter tones plus wrought iron for open and casual entertaining. adidas originals flip flops Nike Air Max Thea Femme Grise They are designed to brighten small spaces and these dinette set will bring a cheerful styling. nike kobe These sets of kitchen furniture can be of different shapes and sizes. Designers and manufacturers of such furniture sets keep their eyes always on the recent trend and market demand. Polished and glass finish dinette sets are loved by all. louboutin chaussure These sets are very innovative and versatile. Some dinette sets have folding arrangements. These are very light kind of furniture and also very affordable. Price of such dinette sets depends on the material. Nike Free Rn Flyknit Femme Market is now flooded with designer dinette sets. Some sets have lucrative discounts on them. So, do not waste your time and grab the grand opportunity. nike air max 90 uomo bianche For further details you can search the internet. About The Author Aaron Chabak is an expert who generally writes on a huge assortment of furniture items available for homes and offices. The author through his articles also helps the people select the furniture for different places like dining rooms, bed rooms, drawing rooms. for more information Dinette Sets.

Why Use Infrared Tube Heaters to Heat Your Shop or Barn

A common problem with heating most shops, barns or similar buildings is that many are poorly insulated and/or have a very high air turnover ratio due to high ceilings, large overhead doors and generally drafty conditions. The solution? gas infrared tube heaters.

Why infrared? What is infrared?

Infrared is just another term for radiant. Think of a stove, fireplace, oven or even our own sun. These sources all emit infrared (radiant) heat energy at the speed of light in a straight line. Upon striking objects (floors, people, machinery, animals, etc.) that energy converts to heat and warms the surrounding air. Think of the sun. The sun does not heat the air, the sun heats the earths surface and earths surface heats the air.

In a shop, barn or other wide-open interior space, infrared heaters are designed to produce safe, comfortable radiant heat to floors and objects in order to heat the surrounding air. Generally, infrared heaters are directed downward from the ceiling toward a target area below. For instance, in a horse barn infrared heaters can be directed toward a wash and grooming area or down a common walkway, between horse stalls or even in riding arenas. In an auto repair shop, heaters can be located over or near workbenches or between overhead doors.

What kind of infrared heaters are best suited for shop and barn environments?

We recommend gas infrared tube heaters. Youll find a lot of information on the internet to help you learn what infrared can do for you. To find the best brands, type into your browser “best tube heaters” or “superior tube heaters”. This should take you to a number of manufacturers sites where you can read about the products they offer and learn why gas infrared tube heaters are usually the best for heating farm buildings, shops, manufacturing facilities, aircraft hangars and other large open structures.

Why infrared tube heaters?

A few good reasons:
1. Infrared tube heaters emit soft, comfortable radiant heat energy without moving any air with no drafts. No blowing air can help prevent respiratory illnesses in both humans and animals.
2. General creature comfort is improved. Infrared heats the ground. Warm floors means warm bodies and feet.
3. Infrared, like light, can be directed at a target. For barns, this can mean the horse wash area, dry off areas, stalls, aisle ways, or wherever the need for heat is greatest. For shops, this can mean work areas and assembly lines.
4. Energy savings and efficiency. Infrared heaters can be strategically mounted to throw radiant energy where it is needed, rather than to empty spaces. This tactical approach to heating space can save a boatload of money in operational costs versus forced-air heating methods.
5. Infrared tube heaters are completely self contained. By drawing outside air into the burner at one end and venting products of combustion out the opposite end to the outside, the flame inside the heater is completely isolated from dusty and contaminated indoor air. This prolongs life of the heater.
6. Infrared feels natural. Just like standing in the sunshine, the soft heat energy creates a healthier and happier environment for people and animals.

What exactly is a tube heater?

A tube heater consists of a burner box, which includes control components much a gas valve, circuit board, safety switch, etc.) Extending horizontally from the burner is a long 4″ diameter 16 gauge steel tube, anywhere from 10 to 70 feet in length. Positioned above is an aluminum parabolic reflector running over the length of the tube. When the burner comes on, a long flame shoots down the tube until it gets hot. The reflector ensures that heat energy that bounces out from the top portions of the tubing gets reflected downward to the floor area. The goal is to get all of that energy focussed downward.

A simple web search of infrared tube heaters will give you a good overview of the different tube heater brands and what they offer. Hint: not all brands are the same. For instance, one manufacturer has a 99.9% efficient reflector configuration the best in the industry. Others range anywhere from 65% efficient (effective) to 95%. A superior reflector design can mean better heating efficiency and lower operating costs.

If youre searching for a tube heating system, do a thorough online search first. Not all are alike. Some are simply better than others. As stated above, Google “superior tube heaters” or “best tube heaters”. Look for the best warranty, best construction quality, best reflective efficiency, and best serviceability among all brands. Then, buy only from a company with a solid reputation in the infrared industry, a company capable of giving you the type of support that will merit your business. You should get a good price, of course, but make sure that whoever you buy from will be on hand to fulfill, guarantee and offer support to you down the road. We dont recommend buying from large catalogue houses that sell thousands of unrelated items. They tend to be “order takers” only and youll find it nearly impossible to get design/application assistance or future service.

Learn How to Build Kitchen Cabinets from Scratch

If you have ever dreamt of building kitchen cabinets by yourself then now you can make it come true. It is quite easy to build kitchen cabinets from scratch, if you really know what you are doing. Following a few simple steps and by considering a few tips you can easily build the project. nike lebron 12 Though large number of people prefer buying it from large hardware stores but it is always better to get it built in the way and in the style and design you like. But this again depends on the comfort level you’d like to have and on how skilled you are. Below are a few steps to follow: You can have a perfect kitchen by choosing a contemporary central theme. After deciding the theme of the kitchen start taking the measurements. nike kyrie 1 Prefer to get it prepared so that you can have exactly what you have been looking for. Going for the unassembled one is also a good option. This won’t just help you in saving lots of money but at the same time will also make the job easy. You just have to open the box and read the instructions. After that follow them and nail or glue the cabinets and then install them at proper places. nike internationalist But if you are someone thinking How to Build Kitchen Cabinets from Scratch then would need more efforts. For this, you would need to get the design and the wood you want. After that you need have to install everything. This method requires a great amount of skill.

Carriage Bolts A Long History And Eternal Purpose

These bolts got their name for the original purpose. Carriage bolts were used in a carriage which was the basic transportation during olden times. The wheels of the carriage are made of wood. It was in 1818 at Connecticut when a blacksmith named Mr. Micah Rugg invented a machine that will produce these special bolts. Rugg and Barnes is the first company in America that produces bolts and nuts. Carriage bolts or plow bolts are type of fastener that is commonly used in carpentry and construction of wood products like furniture, wooden picnic table, wood garage doors and wood crafts. They are used in smooth and flat surface because of its aesthetic appeal that adds to the finished look of the wood surface. Carriage bolts are not limited to wood products; it can also be used in metal products, you just need to take some consideration in fastening two pieces of metals.

Carriage bolt heads are domed shaped and under the head is a square shaped neck. It may also be available in angular, flat or domed top and no neck. The square section part of the bolt is for gripping purposes, so it will not move or turn when you spin the nut. Carriage bolts are designed to have a secure fit so it will be safe and reliable. The common bolt types are zinc-plated bolts, steel grade 5 bolts, stainless steel 18-8 bolts, silicone bronze bolts and hot dipped galvanized bolts.

There are many different varieties of diameters, sizes, styles, types and grades of steel. The common grades of strength are grade 3, 5 and 8. The bolts diameter may range from 3/16 to 3/4 inch and 1/2 inch to 10 inches when it comes to length. There are seven categories in carriage bolts measurement and these are square depth, square width, screw length, head height and head diameter. The body diameter refers to the unthreaded part; it is between the square neck and the thread part. The square width is the total measurement of the square neck. The square depth refers to the square neck of the bolt but other bolts do not have a square neck. The head diameter is the width of the bolt’s head. The bolt length is the distance from the bottom of the bolt’s head up to the tip of the bolt.

Carriage bolts are not intended to be driven and you need to insert the bolts in a pre-drilled hole. So there is no need to use a tool to screw it. They are used to fasten or tighten two pieces of objects. It may look so small and useless but the truth is, it is very essential and beneficial in our everyday life. The carriage bolt can holds and supports objects that we normally see and use like furniture, cars, bridges and railways. If you need carriage bolts, you can buy this in any hardware store or even online store.

Hybrid Cars For Energy Efficiency

A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more discrete power sources to propel the vehicle. Common power sources include:

On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled powA hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more discrete power sources to propel the vehicle. Common power sources include:

On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled power source (internal combustion engine or fuel cell)

Air engine and internal combustion engines

Human powered bicycle with electric motor or gas engine assist

Human-powered or sail boat with electric power

The term most frequently refers to Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which comprises internal combustion engines and electric motors.

Early hybrid systems are being examined for trucks and other heavy highway vehicles with a few operational trucks and buses initial to come into use. The chief barrier seem to be smaller fleet sizes and the extra costs of a hybrid system are yet remunerated for by fuel savings, but with the price of oil set to persist on its upward trend, the tipping point might be reached by the end of 2008. Advances in technology and lesser battery cost and higher capacity etc. urbanized in the hybrid car industry are already filtering into truck use as Toyota, Ford, GM and others initiate hybrid pickups and SUVs. Kenworth Truck Company lately introduced a hybrid-electric truck, called the Kenworth T270 Class 6 that for city usage appear to be competitive. FedEx and others are preparatory to invest in hybrid delivery type vehiclesmainly for city use where hybrid technology may pay off first. The U.S. military is inspecting hybrid Humvees and other vehicles.

When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it normally refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These cover such vehicles as the AHS2 (Chevrolet Tahoe, GMC Yukon, Chevrolet Silverado, Cadillac Escalade, and the Saturn Vue), Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid and others. A petroleum-electric hybrid normally uses internal combustion engines and electric batteries to control electric motors. There are loads of types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains, from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid, which proffer varying merits and demerits.
While liquid fuel/electric hybrids in the late 1800s, the braking regenerative hybrid was invented by David Arthurs, an electrical engineer from Springdale, Arkansas in 1978-79. His home-converted Opel GT was reported to get as much as 75MPG and plans are still sold to this novel design, and the “Mother Earth News” customized version on their website.

Hybrid fuel (dual mode)

Additionally, vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also deem vehicles that use discrete energy sources or input types (“fuels”) using the same engine to be hybrids, even though to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use in the approved manner the terms, these are perhaps more suitably described as dual mode vehicles:

A few electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and
Overhead electrical power depending on circumstances (see dual mode bus). In principle, this could be pooled with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, though as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced.

Flexible-fuel vehicles can be able to use an assortment of input fuels (petroleum and biofuels) in one tank characteristically gasoline and bioethanol or biobutanol, though diesel-biodiesel vehicles would also meet the criteria.

Dual mode: Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are diverse from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the identical tanks, so it would be unfeasible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system. As an alternative vehicles are built with two, parallel, fuel systems feeding one engine. While the replicated tanks cost space in some applications, the augmented range and flexibility where (LPG or NG) infrastructure is incomplete may be a noteworthy incentive to purchase.

Few vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars customized to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels customized to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel.

Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and additional human-powered vehicles are also integrated.

Fluid power hybrid

Hydraulic and pneumatic hybrid vehicles employ an engine to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels through hydraulic or pneumatic (i.e. compressed air) drive units. The energy recovery rate is elevated and therefore the system is more efficient than battery charged hybrids, demonstrating a 60% to 70% increase in energy economy in EPA testing. Under tests performed by the EPA, a hydraulic hybrid Ford Expedition returned 32 mpgU.S. (7.35 L/100 km / 38.4 mpgimp) City, and 22 mpgU.S. (10.69 L/100 km / 26.4 mpgimp) highway

The most recent hybrid technology is the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The PHEV is inclusive of a gasoline-electric hybrid whose battery pack (usually Li-ion) is upgraded to a superior capacity, which can be recharged by moreover a battery charger curved into the electrical grid or the gasoline engine (only if required). The car runs on battery power for the first 10 to 60 miles (16100 km), with the gasoline engine on hand for faster speeding up, etc.

After the battery is almost discharged, the car reverts to the gasoline engine to recharge the battery and/or return the car to the charging station. This may get around the fundamental barrier of battery range that has made nearly all pure electric cars impractical. Fuel rates, in principle, may be as low as 5 cents/mile. It’s not obvious yet whether converting an existing hybrid car will ever pay for itself in fuel savings.

The major problem is finding a good, cheap, high-energy battery packthe equivalent problem that has plagued the unpolluted electric car. If everyone plugged into the function grid to charge up their car this would seem to be just displacing the gasoline/diesel combustion crisis to the trait coal powered electrical generating plant. But, if cars were recharged tardy at night this would allow the base load of the electrical system to be more capable with a much more even base load and electrical power can also be generated by clean wind, hydro, tide power, etc. while most travel is regarding 30 miles/day this may be the cleanest personal transportation system at present available.

There is a “cottage” conversion industry for owner- existing hybrids, and more than a few huge auto industry groups (GM, Toyota, Mercedes etc.) plus the US Department of Energy are investigating this system. No chief car company (as of late 2007) offers PHEVs yet. The characteristic “cottage” industry conversion car is the Toyota Prius (cost of conversion $5k-$40k), as it is a full hybrid with sufficient power in its electrical system to maintain distinctive city speeds.

Fuel consumption and emissions reductions

The hybrid vehicle characteristically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), ensuing in fewer emissions being generated. These savings are mainly achieved by four elements of a typical hybrid design:

-Recapturing energy generally wasted during braking etc. (regenerative braking) this is a mechanism that condenses vehicle speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into a further helpful form of energy, particularly in stop-and-go traffic.

-having important battery storage capacity to store and recycle recaptured energy;

– shutting down the gasoline or diesel engine in traffic stops or while coasting or other idle periods;

– civilizing aerodynamics; A box shaped car or truck has to put forth more force to move through the air causing added stress on the engine making it toil harder. Improving the shape and aerodynamics of a car is a fine way to help better the gas mileage and also get better handling at the same time.

– By means of low rolling resistance tires; (tires these days are made to give a fine, smooth ride but hardly ever is efficiency taken into consideration. These tires cause a great pact of drag, once again making the engine toil harder, intense more gas mileage. Hybrid cars use special tires that are more exaggerated than regular tires and stiffer, which decreases the drag by about half, humanizing fuel economy by mitigating stress of the engine.

– relying on mutually the gasoline (or diesel engine) and the electric motors for peak power requires ensuing in a smaller gasoline or diesel engine sized more for normal usage rather than peak power usage.

These features make a hybrid vehicle chiefly efficient for city traffic where there are recurrent stops, coasting and idling periods. Besides noise emissions are condensed, mainly at idling and low operating speeds, in similarity to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles. For constant high speed highway use these features are much less helpful in reducing emissions.er source (internal combustion engine or fuel cell)

Air engine and internal combustion engines

Human powered bicycle with electric motor or gas engine assist

Human-powered or sail boat with electric power

The term most frequently refers to Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which comprises internal combustion engines and electric motors.

Early hybrid systems are being examined for trucks and other heavy highway vehicles with a few operational trucks and buses initial to come into use. The chief barrier seem to be smaller fleet sizes and the extra costs of a hybrid system are yet remunerated for by fuel savings, but with the price of oil set to persist on its upward trend, the tipping point might be reached by the end of 2008. Advances in technology and lesser battery cost and higher capacity etc. urbanized in the hybrid car industry are already filtering into truck use as Toyota, Ford, GM and others initiate hybrid pickups and SUVs. Kenworth Truck Company lately introduced a hybrid-electric truck, called the Kenworth T270 Class 6 that for city usage appear to be competitive. FedEx and others are preparatory to invest in hybrid delivery type vehiclesmainly for city use where hybrid technology may pay off first. The U.S. military is inspecting hybrid Humvees and other vehicles.

When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it normally refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These cover such vehicles as the AHS2 (Chevrolet Tahoe, GMC Yukon, Chevrolet Silverado, Cadillac Escalade, and the Saturn Vue), Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid and others. A petroleum-electric hybrid normally uses internal combustion engines and electric batteries to control electric motors. There are loads of types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains, from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid, which proffer varying merits and demerits.
While liquid fuel/electric hybrids in the late 1800s, the braking regenerative hybrid was invented by David Arthurs, an electrical engineer from Springdale, Arkansas in 1978-79. His home-converted Opel GT was reported to get as much as 75MPG and plans are still sold to this novel design, and the “Mother Earth News” customized version on their website.

Hybrid fuel (dual mode)

Additionally, vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also deem vehicles that use discrete energy sources or input types (“fuels”) using the same engine to be hybrids, even though to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use in the approved manner the terms, these are perhaps more suitably described as dual mode vehicles:

A few electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and
Overhead electrical power depending on circumstances (see dual mode bus). In principle, this could be pooled with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, though as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced.

Flexible-fuel vehicles can be able to use an assortment of input fuels (petroleum and biofuels) in one tank characteristically gasoline and bioethanol or biobutanol, though diesel-biodiesel vehicles would also meet the criteria.

Dual mode: Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are diverse from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the identical tanks, so it would be unfeasible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system. As an alternative vehicles are built with two, parallel, fuel systems feeding one engine. While the replicated tanks cost space in some applications, the augmented range and flexibility where (LPG or NG) infrastructure is incomplete may be a noteworthy incentive to purchase.

Few vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars customized to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels customized to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel.

Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and additional human-powered vehicles are also integrated.

Fluid power hybrid

Hydraulic and pneumatic hybrid vehicles employ an engine to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels through hydraulic or pneumatic (i.e. compressed air) drive units. The energy recovery rate is elevated and therefore the system is more efficient than battery charged hybrids, demonstrating a 60% to 70% increase in energy economy in EPA testing. Under tests performed by the EPA, a hydraulic hybrid Ford Expedition returned 32 mpgU.S. (7.35 L/100 km / 38.4 mpgimp) City, and 22 mpgU.S. (10.69 L/100 km / 26.4 mpgimp) highway

The most recent hybrid technology is the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The PHEV is inclusive of a gasoline-electric hybrid whose battery pack (usually Li-ion) is upgraded to a superior capacity, which can be recharged by moreover a battery charger curved into the electrical grid or the gasoline engine (only if required). The car runs on battery power for the first 10 to 60 miles (16100 km), with the gasoline engine on hand for faster speeding up, etc.

After the battery is almost discharged, the car reverts to the gasoline engine to recharge the battery and/or return the car to the charging station. This may get around the fundamental barrier of battery range that has made nearly all pure electric cars impractical. Fuel rates, in principle, may be as low as 5 cents/mile. It’s not obvious yet whether converting an existing hybrid car will ever pay for itself in fuel savings.

The major problem is finding a good, cheap, high-energy battery packthe equivalent problem that has plagued the unpolluted electric car. If everyone plugged into the function grid to charge up their car this would seem to be just displacing the gasoline/diesel combustion crisis to the trait coal powered electrical generating plant. But, if cars were recharged tardy at night this would allow the base load of the electrical system to be more capable with a much more even base load and electrical power can also be generated by clean wind, hydro, tide power, etc. while most travel is regarding 30 miles/day this may be the cleanest personal transportation system at present available.

There is a “cottage” conversion industry for owner- existing hybrids, and more than a few huge auto industry groups (GM, Toyota, Mercedes etc.) plus the US Department of Energy are investigating this system. No chief car company (as of late 2007) offers PHEVs yet. The characteristic “cottage” industry conversion car is the Toyota Prius (cost of conversion $5k-$40k), as it is a full hybrid with sufficient power in its electrical system to maintain distinctive city speeds.

Fuel consumption and emissions reductions

The hybrid vehicle characteristically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), ensuing in fewer emissions being generated. These savings are mainly achieved by four elements of a typical hybrid design:

-Recapturing energy generally wasted during braking etc. (regenerative braking) this is a mechanism that condenses vehicle speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into a further helpful form of energy, particularly in stop-and-go traffic.

-having important battery storage capacity to store and recycle recaptured energy;

– shutting down the gasoline or diesel engine in traffic stops or while coasting or other idle periods;

– civilizing aerodynamics; A box shaped car or truck has to put forth more force to move through the air causing added stress on the engine making it toil harder. Improving the shape and aerodynamics of a car is a fine way to help better the gas mileage and also get better handling at the same time.

– By means of low rolling resistance tires; (tires these days are made to give a fine, smooth ride but hardly ever is efficiency taken into consideration. These tires cause a great pact of drag, once again making the engine toil harder, intense more gas mileage. Hybrid cars use special tires that are more exaggerated than regular tires and stiffer, which decreases the drag by about half, humanizing fuel economy by mitigating stress of the engine.

– relying on mutually the gasoline (or diesel engine) and the electric motors for peak power requires ensuing in a smaller gasoline or diesel engine sized more for normal usage rather than peak power usage.

These features make a hybrid vehicle chiefly efficient for city traffic where there are recurrent stops, coasting and idling periods. Besides noise emissions are condensed, mainly at idling and low operating speeds, in similarity to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles. For constant high speed highway use these features are much less helpful in reducing emissions.

Guide To Installing Laminate Flooring

Installing laminate flooring isn’t very hard, but steps do need to be taken to make sure it’s done right. legend zen for sale The installation process will wind up wasting some of the flooring, so make sure to order 10% more flooring than you really need. Then, upon the arrival of the flooring, ensure that you unwrap it and leave it in the room for at least three days before the install. By allowing the flooring to rest in the rooms, it will end up getting used to the humidity and temperature. If you don’t let the flooring acclimate to the new temperature, it may shrink and expand after being installed, which will actually ruin the floor. Make sure that you clean the sub-floor before you begin the laminate flooring installation. Cheap Adidas Shoes You have to clean this sub-floor or the flooring won’t lay flat against it. Just make sure that anything attached to the walls is at a high enough point that the new laminate can slide underneath, and if you need to, remove it. If your laminate flooring is being installed over a concrete type sub-floor, ensure that the concrete is cured before the laminate is brought into the room to acclimate. After the sub-flooring is clean, and before starting the floor installation, lay down a vapor barrier. A vapor barrier like this will protect the flooring from sudden moisture changes, important in homes with damp crawl spaces. Consulting the manufacturer’s direction guide should be the next step, but you’ll find that most vapor barriers overlap or butt right up next to each other. If your door jams have molding, which is characteristic of most of them, then trim them so that your new flooring slides clean underneath. Then, you’re going to want to place the manufacturer’s suggested width of spacers up against the starting wall, ensuring that the first row of laminate is with the grooved side against the spacers. The function of the spacers is to allow the floor to expand and contract; this will be covered with base molding when you are finished. Now you’re ready to lay the rest of the laminate row by row, ensuring that the flooring grooves are tapped tightly to the tongue of each preceding piece. Also, make sure that each plank flooring end is offset 6 to 8 inches from each neighboring piece. When finished laying the floor, install door thresholds and baseboard molding to finish the project.

The Benefits of Oak Kitchen Cabinets

Oak kitchen cabinets will be a great addition to any new or existing one. Many homes are made with a lower grade wood for the cabinets simply because of the builder wanting to save a little money. While these cupboards might be purposeful, over time, they will simply not outlast the natural durability of oak. They provide the room a look and feel of home with a quiet beauty that’s unsurpassed by other woods. One of the first things a new home buyer looks at is the kitchen cabinets as a buying point as to how much storage room they supply and the material they are created from. By putting in oak cabinets, you can increase the resale value of a home and impress potential buyers. Oak kitchen cupboards are popular not solely for their sturdiness, but also for their flexibility. The wood is robust and will last for several years of daily use. An oak grain pattern is sort of unmistakable and typically features knots and pits as a natural characteristic of the wood. Before purchasing from a manufacturer, customers will typically request a sample of the wood, as well as finish or paint chips. timberland earthkeeper A small palm or orbiting sander will be a godsend during this process. This permits the surface to be prepped after stripping with minimal effort. No one wants to sand that much surface area by hand, and these little sanders make to job move right along. adidas energy boost co.uk There are several ways to bring a kitchen up-to-date without creating major changes like adding oak kitchen cabinets, replacing appliances, or laying down a brand new floor. A fresh coat of paint can usually brighten up a space at a minimal cost. Homeowners can conjointly spruce up a kitchen by adding crown molding, buying new kitchen furniture, or upgrading lighting fixtures. Ultimately, creativity is crucial when attempting to save money during a kitchen remodel. Click here for discount oak kitchen cabinets and unfinished oak kitchen cabinets.